南非万寿菊播种后大概多久开花?

小说:南非万寿菊播种后大概多久开花?作者:公陵更新时间:2019-04-26字数:84019

第一部分: http://www.cnblogs.com/cgzl/p/8283610.html

下面有一点点内容是重叠的....

String Assert

测试string是否相等

        [Fact]
        public void CalculateFullName()
        {
            var p = new Patient
            {
                FirstName = "Nick",
                LastName = "Carter"
            };
            Assert.Equal("Nick Carter", p.FullName);
        }

然后你需要Build一下,这样VS Test Explorer才能发现新的test。

运行测试,结果Pass:

同样改一下Patient类(别忘了Build一下),让结果失败:

从失败信息可以看到期待值和实际值。

StartsWith, EndsWith

        [Fact]
        public void CalculateFullNameStartsWithFirstName()
        {
            var p = new Patient
            {
                FirstName = "Nick",
                LastName = "Carter"
            };
            Assert.StartsWith("Nick", p.FullName);
        }

        [Fact]
        public void CalculateFullNameEndsWithFirstName()
        {
            var p = new Patient
            {
                FirstName = "Nick",
                LastName = "Carter"
            };
            Assert.EndsWith("Carter", p.FullName);e);
        }

Build,然后Run Test,结果Pass:

忽略大小写 ignoreCase

string默认的Assert是区分大小写的,这样就会失败:

可以为这些方法添加一个参数ignoreCase设置为true,就会忽略大小写:

包含子字符串 Contains

        [Fact]
        public void CalculateFullNameSubstring()
        {
            var p = new Patient
            {
                FirstName = "Nick",
                LastName = "Carter"
            };
            Assert.Contains("ck Ca", p.FullName);
        }

Build,测试结果Pass。

正则表达式,Matches

测试一下First name和Last name的首字母是不是大写的:

        [Fact]
        public void CalculcateFullNameWithTitleCase()
        {
            var p = new Patient
            {
                FirstName = "Nick",
                LastName = "Carter"
            };
            Assert.Matches("[A-Z]{1}{a-z}+ [A-Z]{1}[a-z]+", p.FullName);
        }

Build,测试通过。

数值 Assert

首先为Patient类添加一个property: BloodSugar。

    public class Patient
    {
        public Patient()
        {
            IsNew = true;
            _bloodSugar = 5.0f;
        }

        private float _bloodSugar;
        public float BloodSugar
        {
            get { return _bloodSugar; }
            set { _bloodSugar = value; }
        }
        ...

Equal:

        [Fact]
        public void BloodSugarStartWithDefaultValue()
        {
            var p = new Patient();
            Assert.Equal(5.0, p.BloodSugar);
        }

Build,测试通过。

范围, InRange:

首先为Patient类添加一个方法,病人吃饭之后血糖升高:

        public void HaveDinner()
        {
            var random = new Random();
            _bloodSugar += (float)random.Next(1, 1000) / 100; //  应该是1000
        }

添加test:

        [Fact]
        public void BloodSugarIncreaseAfterDinner()
        {
            var p = new Patient();
            p.HaveDinner();
            // Assert.InRange<float>(p.BloodSugar, 5, 6);
            Assert.InRange(p.BloodSugar, 5, 6);
        }

Build,Run Test,结果Fail:

可以看到期待的Range和实际的值,这样很好。如果你使用Assert.True(xx >= 5 && xx <= 6)的话,错误信息只能显示True或者False。

因为HaveDinner方法里,表达式的分母应该是1000,修改后,Build,Run,测试Pass。

浮点型数值的Assert

在被测项目添加这两个类:

namespace Hospital
{
    public abstract class Worker
    {
        public string Name { get; set; }

        public abstract double TotalReward { get; }
        public abstract double Hours { get; }
        public double Salary => TotalReward / Hours;
    }

    public class Plumber : Worker
    {
        public override double TotalReward => 200;
        public override double Hours => 3;
    }
}

然后针对Plumber建立一个测试类 PlumberShould.cs, 并建立第一个test:

namespace Hospital.Tests
{
    public class PlumberShould
    {
        [Fact]
        public void HaveCorrectSalary()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Equal(66.666, plumber.Salary);
        }
    }
}

Build项目, 然后再Test Explorer里面选择按Class分类显示Tests:

Run Selected Test, 结果会失败:

这是一个精度的问题.

在Assert.Equal方法, 可以添加一个precision参数, 设置精度为3:

        [Fact]
        public void HaveCorrectSalary()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Equal(66.666, plumber.Salary, precision: 3);
        }

Build, Run Test:

因为有四舍五入的问题, 所以test仍然fail了.

所以还需要改一下:

        [Fact]
        public void HaveCorrectSalary()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Equal(66.667, plumber.Salary, precision: 3);
        }

这次会pass的:

Assert Null值

        [Fact]
        public void NotHaveNameByDefault()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Null(plumber.Name);
        }

        [Fact]
        public void HaveNameValue()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber
            {
                Name = "Brian"
            };
            Assert.NotNull(plumber.Name);
        }

有两个方法, Assert.Null 和 Assert.NotNull, 直接传入期待即可.

测试会Pass的.

集合 Collection Assert

修改一下被测试类, 添加一个集合属性, 并赋值:

namespace Hospital
{
    public abstract class Worker
    {
        public string Name { get; set; }

        public abstract double TotalReward { get; }
        public abstract double Hours { get; }
        public double Salary => TotalReward / Hours;

        public List<string> Tools { get; set; }
    }

    public class Plumber : Worker
    {
        public Plumber()
        {
            Tools = new List<string>()
            {
                "螺丝刀",
                "扳子",
                "钳子"
            };
        }

        public override double TotalReward => 200;
        public override double Hours => 3;
    }
}

测试是否包含某个元素, Assert.Contains():

        [Fact]
        public void HaveScrewdriver()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Contains("螺丝刀", plumber.Tools);
        }

Build, Run Test, 结果Pass.

修改一下名字, 让其Fail:

这个失败信息还是很详细的.

相应的还有一个Assert.DoesNotContain()方法, 测试集合是否不包含某个元素.

        [Fact]
        public void NotHaveKeyboard()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.DoesNotContain("键盘", plumber.Tools);
        }

这个test也会pass.

Predicate:

测试一下集合中是否包含符合某个条件的元素:

 

        [Fact]
        public void HaveAtLeastOneScrewdriver()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.Contains(plumber.Tools, t => t.Contains("螺丝刀"));
        }

 

使用的是Assert.Contains的一个overload方法, 它的第一个参数是集合, 第二个参数是Predicate.

Build, Run Test, 会Pass的.

比较集合相等:

添加Test:

        [Fact]
        public void HaveAllTools()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            var expectedTools = new []
            {
                "螺丝刀",
                "扳子",
                "钳子"
            };
            Assert.Equal(expectedTools, plumber.Tools);
        }

注意, Plumber的tools类型是List, 这里的expectedTools类型是array.

这个test 仍然会Pass.

如果修改一个元素, 那么测试会Fail, 信息如下:

Assert针对集合的每个元素:

如果想对集合的每个元素进行Assert, 当然可以通过循环来Assert了, 但是更好的写法是调用Assert.All()方法:

        [Fact]
        public void HaveNoEmptyDefaultTools()
        {
            var plumber = new Plumber();
            Assert.All(plumber.Tools, t => Assert.False(string.IsNullOrEmpty(t)));
        }

这个测试会Pass.

如果在被测试类的Tools属性添加一个空字符串, 那么失败信息会是:

这里写到, 4个元素里面有1个没有pass.

针对Object类型的Assert

 首先再添加一个Programmer类:

    public class Programmer : Worker
    {
        public override double TotalReward => 1000;
        public override double Hours => 3.5;
    }

然后建立一个WorkerFactory:

namespace Hospital
{
    public class WorkerFactory
    {
        public Worker Create(string name, bool isProgrammer = false)
        {
            if (isProgrammer)
            {
                return new Programmer { Name = name };
            }
            return new Plumber { Name = name };
        }
    }
}

判断是否是某个类型 Assert.IsType<Type>(xx):
建立一个测试类 WorkerShould.cs和一个test:

namespace Hospital.Tests
{
    public class WorkerShould
    {
        [Fact]
        public void CreatePlumberByDefault()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            Worker worker = factory.Create("Nick");
            Assert.IsType<Plumber>(worker);
        }
    }
}

Build, Run Test: 结果Pass.

相应的, 还有一个Assert.IsNotType<Type>(xx)方法.

利用Assert.IsType<Type>(xx)的返回值, 它会返回Type(xx的)的这个实例, 添加个一test:

        [Fact]
        public void CreateProgrammerAndCastReturnedType()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            Worker worker = factory.Create("Nick", isProgrammer: true);
            Programmer programmer = Assert.IsType<Programmer>(worker);
            Assert.Equal("Nick", programmer.Name);
        }

Build, Run Tests: 结果Pass.

Assert针对父类:

写这样一个test, 创建的是一个promgrammer, Assert的类型是它的父类Worker:

        [Fact]
        public void CreateProgrammer_AssertAssignableTypes()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            Worker worker = factory.Create("Nick", isProgrammer: true);
            Assert.IsType<Worker>(worker);
        }

这个会Fail:

这时就应该使用这个方法, Assert.IsAssignableFrom<祖先类>(xx):

        [Fact]
        public void CreateProgrammer_AssertAssignableTypes()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            Worker worker = factory.Create("Nick", isProgrammer: true);
            Assert.IsAssignableFrom<Worker>(worker);
        }

Build, Run Tests: Pass.

Assert针对对象的实例

判断两个引用是否指向不同的实例 Assert.NotSame(a, b):

        [Fact]
        public void CreateSeperateInstances()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            var p1 = factory.Create("Nick");
            var p2 = factory.Create("Nick");
            Assert.NotSame(p1, p2);
        }

由工厂创建的两个对象是不同的实例, 所以这个test会Pass.

相应的还有个Assert.Same(a, b) 方法.

Assert 异常

为WorkFactory先添加一个异常处理:

namespace Hospital
{
    public class WorkerFactory
    {
        public Worker Create(string name, bool isProgrammer = false)
        {
            if (name == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(name));
            }
            if (isProgrammer)
            {
                return new Programmer { Name = name };
            }
            return new Plumber { Name = name };
        }
    }
}

如果在test执行代码时抛出异常的话, 那么test会直接fail掉.

所以应该使用Assert.Throws<ArgumentNullException>(...)方法来Assert是否抛出了特定类型的异常.

添加一个test:

        [Fact]
        public void NotAllowNullName()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
// var p = factory.Create(null); // 这个会失败 Assert.Throws
<ArgumentNullException>(() => factory.Create(null)); }

注意不要直接运行会抛出异常的代码. 应该在Assert.Throws<ET>()的方法里添加lambda表达式来调用方法.

这样的话就会pass.

如果被测试代码没有抛出异常的话, 那么test会fail的. 把抛异常代码注释掉之后再Run:

更具体的, 还可以指定参数的名称:

        [Fact]
        public void NotAllowNullName()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            // Assert.Throws<ArgumentNullException>(() => factory.Create(null));
            Assert.Throws<ArgumentNullException>("name", () => factory.Create(null));
        }

这里就是说异常里应该有一个叫name的参数.

Run: Pass.

如果把"name"改成"isProgrammer", 那么这个test会fail:

利用Assert.Throws<ET>()的返回结果, 其返回结果就是这个抛出的异常实例.

        [Fact]
        public void NotAllowNullNameAndUseReturnedException()
        {
            var factory = new WorkerFactory();
            ArgumentNullException ex = Assert.Throws<ArgumentNullException>(() => factory.Create(null));
            Assert.Equal("name", ex.ParamName);
        }

Assert Events 是否发生(Raised)

回到之前的Patient类, 添加如下代码:

        public void Sleep()
        {
            OnPatientSlept();
        }

        public event EventHandler<EventArgs> PatientSlept;

        protected virtual void OnPatientSlept()
        {
            PatientSlept?.Invoke(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }

然后回到PatientShould.cs添加test:

        [Fact]
        public void RaiseSleptEvent()
        {
            var p = new Patient();
            Assert.Raises<EventArgs>(
                handler => p.PatientSlept += handler, 
                handler => p.PatientSlept -= handler, 
                () => p.Sleep());
        }

Assert.Raises<T>()第一个参数是附加handler的Action, 第二个参数是分离handler的Action, 第三个Action是触发event的代码.

Build, Run Test: Pass.

如果注释掉Patient类里Sleep()方法内部那行代码, 那么test会fail:

针对INotifyPropertyChanged的特殊Assert:

修改Patient代码:

namespace Hospital
{
    public class Patient: INotifyPropertyChanged
    {
        public Patient()
        {
            IsNew = true;
            _bloodSugar = 5.0f;
        }

        public string FirstName { get; set; }
        public string LastName { get; set; }
        public string FullName => $"{FirstName} {LastName}";
        public int HeartBeatRate { get; set; }
        public bool IsNew { get; set; }

        private float _bloodSugar;
        public float BloodSugar
        {
            get => _bloodSugar;
            set => _bloodSugar = value;
        }

        public void HaveDinner()
        {
            var random = new Random();
            _bloodSugar += (float)random.Next(1, 1000) / 1000;
            OnPropertyChanged(nameof(BloodSugar));
        }

        public void IncreaseHeartBeatRate()
        {
            HeartBeatRate = CalculateHeartBeatRate() + 2;
        }

        private int CalculateHeartBeatRate()
        {
            var random = new Random();
            return random.Next(1, 100);
        }

        public void Sleep()
        {
            OnPatientSlept();
        }

        public event EventHandler<EventArgs> PatientSlept;

        protected virtual void OnPatientSlept()
        {
            PatientSlept?.Invoke(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }

        public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

        protected virtual void OnPropertyChanged([CallerMemberName] string propertyName = null)
        {
            PropertyChanged?.Invoke(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));
        }
    }
}
View Code

添加一个Test:

        [Fact]
        public void RaisePropertyChangedEvent()
        {
            var p = new Patient();
            Assert.PropertyChanged(p, "BloodSugar", () => p.HaveDinner());
        }

针对INotifyPropertyChanged, 可以使用Assert.PropertyChanged(..) 这个专用的方法来断定PropertyChanged的Event是否被触发了.

Build, Run Tests: Pass.

到目前为止, 介绍的都是入门级的内容.

接下来要介绍的是稍微进阶一点的内容了.

当前文章:http://adsl66.com/content/2019-02/21/content_99181.html

发布时间:2019-04-26 07:33:04

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